'Recognizing the need is the primary condition for design.'

Charles Eames

'To design is to communicate clearly by whatever means you can control or master.'
Milton Glaser

Aesthetics – How various features combine to make something ‘beautiful’ or
Aims – The broad educational or vocational purposes of a qualification.
Analyse – To reduce to basic elements – a term often used in the early stages of
the designing process.
Annotation – The addition of explanatory notes.
Anthropometrics – The study of the measurements and movement of human
Artefact – A product that has been designed and made.
Assessment Objectives – The criteria used to evaluate candidates attainments.

Batch Production – The limited production of a number of identical artefacts.
Blow Moulding – A common industrial plastic moulding process used for products
such as bottles and barrels.
Brief – A clear statement of the Design objective / Design task.
BSI – British Standards Institution – the organisation responsible for preparing
codes of practice. BS8888:2006

CAD – Computer aided design.
CAM – Computer aided manufacture.
CIM – (also called CAD/CAM) – an integrated system of design and manufacture
using computers.
Candidate Record Form – The sheet used for the assessment of individual
candidate’s coursework and the declaration by both candidate and teacher(s) of the
help, over and above that normally expected from teachers, given in the production
of the coursework.
Client – An individual or company that employs the services of any professional
person, e.g. designers.
Colour Registration – The alignment of different colours used in the creation of a
printed item or artefact.
Colour Wheel – This relates to the relationship between primary, secondary and
tertiary colours, complementary colours and the principles of how colour can be
used in products and design situations.
Compliant – A material that can be easily shaped, folded, cut or joined.
CNC – Computer numerical control.
Constraints – Limits placed on the designing process.
Consumer – A person who purchases or uses a product or service.
Corporate Identity – The ‘whole’ graphic image of a business or organisation –
the logo type, uniform, colour and product(s) image.
Coursework – Tasks set and undertaken during the course which are integral to
the course of study.
Crease - Folding card or paper over a straight edge in a straight line.
Critical Control Points – Stages in the production process that are regularly
checked to ensure errors and risks are reduced to an acceptable level.
Criteria – Working characteristics that a product or process must achieve.

Data – Relevant facts and figures collected by research or experimentation and
Database – A collection of information now commonly stored on computer.
Design – The process of solving problems through the development of ideas to
produce a solution within set constraints.
Development – (1) The refinement of ideas to produce a final solution, dealing
with the details of materials/ingredients, construction/method of manufacture,
appearance/aesthetics and function including quantities and sizes.
Development – (2) The flat form of the surface area of a container (sometimes
known as a net).
Die Cutting – This is a machine process, where shaped designs are cut out in
batches or in single units.  Creasing may also take place at this stage.

Economics of Scale – The reduction in unit costs as more are produced.
Embossing – This is the activity of distorting the material, generally paper and
card by the application of pressure.  Embossing may be simulated by using
specialist embossing powders, used in conjunction with special pens or rubber
Entry Codes – The codes to be used when entering candidates for each unit and
each qualification.
Ergonomics – The study of human interaction with the environment.
Evaluation – Judgements made throughout the designing process which test the
outcome against the specification.
External Assessment – A form of independent assessment in which an awarding
body sets or defines assignments, tests or examinations, specifies the conditions
under which they are to be taken (including details of supervision and duration),
and assesses candidates responses.  (See also Internal Assessment).

Fixed Costs – The costs that a company has to expend regardless of output.
Fold - Bend board over on itself without the use of instruments / straight edge etc.
Formal Elements – The part of aesthetics that relates to the elements of visual
appeal – colour, form, shape, symmetry, balance, line, rhythm, composition and
Flowchart – A diagrammatic representation of a process which includes decision
making and feedback.
Function – What an artefact or process is expected to do.
Generic – Of the same group or family.
Ideogram – This is a logo that symbolises an idea by representing an object or
Injection Moulding – The injection of a molten material into a mould under
Internal Assessment – A form of assessment that does not meet the definition of
external assessment for a general or vocational qualification.  Such assessments
are made by the centre and moderated by the awarding body.
Internal Standardisation – The requirement for centres to standardise
assessment across different teachers and teaching groups to ensure that all
candidates at each centre have been judged against the same standards.
Jigs – Devices for holding parts in the appropriate position for machining or
Just in Time – This is a system used to plan the sequences and requirements of
each stage involved in the manufacture of a product.
Key Skills – Key Skills are those generic skills that can enable people to perform
well in education, training and life in general.  They can help people to become
members of a flexible workforce and equip them with the means to benefit from
life-long learning.
Logo – A symbol associated with the identity of a company or organisation.
Marketing – The selling of a product or service to the consumer.
Mass Production – The production of an artefact in very large numbers.
Mechanism - (Mechanical Movement) A mechanism creates movement within a
product e.g. a pop up card, push pull linkage to create movement
Mind Mapping – A rapid collection of initial thoughts regarding a problem.
Mock-up – A model (often full-size) of a design to allow evaluation.
Model – A representation that can be either 2D or 3D, to a scale and made from
easily manipulated materials.
Moderation – The process through which internal assessment is monitored by an
awarding body to ensure that internal assessment is valid, reliable, fair and
consistent with required standards.
Overheads – Costs not directly related to the manufacture of a product.
Preparation Sheet – The sheet issued to centres prior to the examination which
contains details of topics that will be covered in the examination paper.
Primary Research – Research done by an individual from original sources.
Production Planning – The process of detailing the steps that need to be carried
out before a product is manufactured that takes account of both time constraints
and available resources.
Profit – The difference between the cost of production, including overheads, and
the selling price.
Prototype – The initial version of a product used for testing, development and
Quality Assurance – Preparatory work and techniques carried out during the
design process to ensure the process will perform to specification.
Quality Control – Operational checks and tests carried out to ensure that the
product performs to specification.
Questionnaire – A series of questions aimed at obtaining information on a specific
situation.  The analysis of the results is a key feature of this activity, time needs to
be spent creating the actual questions.
Render - To add colour, shading, textures, shadows, wood-graining, plastic effects
      etc. to a drawing or sketch.
Research – The gathering of relevant information.
Retail – The merchandising of products.
Resources – The equipment, materials, knowledge and skills required to design
and make a product.
Risk Assessment – The process of judging the likelihood of a problem occurring –
using a high, medium and low scale.
Risk Control – The steps taken to stop an assessed risk occurring.
Score - Indent a line in board or paper etc. to help fold the material accurately.
            This is usually done with a modelling knife, paper scorer, used ball point  
            pen or hard pencil.
Secondary Research – Research drawn from existing sources such as books and
Smart Materials  - These are modern materials that respond to differences in
temperature or light and then change in some way.  Some also have a memory and
they revert back to their original state – e.g. colour changing dyes.
Solution – The means by which the need is satisfied.
Specification – (1) The criteria that a solution must achieve.  (2) Specification also
means the complete description of the subject content, assessment arrangements
and performance requirements for a qualification.  This now replaces the word

Spider Diagram – A means of presenting the results of research and analysis.
Surface Development(Net) – Unfolding a package or box creates a Surface Development of the product.
Survey – Research carried out by questioning a number of different people or
Symbol – A design idea that can be abstract or realistically represent a solution.
System – A group of processes organised to perform a task.
Template – A pattern or gauge used as a guide for marking/cutting out single or
batches of a selected design idea.
Tessellation – Nets/Developments arranged in a pattern or system.  2D shapes
that can be fitted together, with little space or waste – this technique is often used
when arranging developments for printing.
Testing – Checking the outcome in relation to the original specification and brief.
Tolerance – The range/allowance permitted when manufacturing a product.
Typography - The construction / layout of neat lettering / typestyles.
Unit Cost – The cost of producing a single item, found by dividing the total cost by
the number of units produced.
User Trip – The recording of a user’s impressions based upon the function of a
product – This is an example of a ‘First Hand Research Technique’.
Varnishing – This is the application of a thin glossy varnish that is applied to a
printed product.  It has a number of functions – it can help to protect the printed
product, it makes it more attractive and can also be used to create dramatic
highlights.  There are various types of varnish used for different applications.
Vacuum Forming – The process of shaping thermoplastics onto a former by the
application of heat and a vacuum.

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© Julian Kupper