'Recognizing the need is the primary condition for design.'

Charles Eames

'To design is to communicate clearly by whatever means you can control or master.'
Milton Glaser

Activity - For a Missing Words do it NOW you have to figure out the part complete words from each set of three statements per task:



Aesthetics – How various features combine to make something ‘bXXXXXful’ or


Analyse – To reduce to basic elements – a term often used in the early stages of
the deXXXXXng process.


Assessment Objectives – The crXXXria used to evaluate candidates attainments.



Batch Production – The limited production of a number of identical artXXXXts.
Blow Moulding – A common industrial plastic mouXXXXg process used for products
such as boXXXes and barrels.
Brief – A clear statement of the Design obXXXXive / Design task.



CAD – CoXXXXer aided design.
– CoXXXXer aided manXXXcture.


Corporate IdXXXXXy – The ‘whole’ graphic image of a business or organisation –
the logo type, uniform, colour and product(s) image.



Design – The process of solving problems through the devXXXXXent of ideas to
produce a solution within set consXXXints.
Development – (1) The refinement of ideas to produce a final solution, dealing
with the details of materials/ingredients, construction/method of manufacture,
appearance/aestXXXXcs and function including quaXXXties and sizes.

Die CuXXXXg – This is a machine process, where shaped designs are cut out in
batches or in single units.  Creasing may also take place at this stage.

5: E


Economics of Scale – The reduction in uXXt cXXXs as more are produced


Ergonomics – The study of hXXXn interaction with the environment


Evaluation – Judgements made throughout the designing prXXXXs which test the
outcome against the spXXXXXXXXion.



Fixed Costs – The costs that a company has to exXXnd regardless of output.
Fold - Bend board over on itself without the use of instXXXXnts / straight edge etc.
Formal Elements – The part of aesXXXXXXcs that relates to the elements of visual
appeal – colour, form, shape, symmetry, balance, line, rhythm, composition and

7:G & I


Generic – Of the same gXXXp or family.


Ideogram – This is a logo that symXXXXses an idea by representing an object or
Injection Moulding – The injection of a molten matXXXal into a mould under

8:J & K


Jigs – Devices for holding parts in the apXXXXXXate position for machining or
Just in Time – This is a system used to plan the sequences and requXXXXents of
each stage involved in the manuXXXXure of a product.
Key Skills – Key Skills are those generic skills that can enable people to perform
well in education, training and life in general.  They can help people to become
members of a flexible workXXXce and equip them with the means to benefit from
life-long learning.

9:L & M


Logo – A symbol associated with the identity of a company or orgXXXXXtion.
– The selling of a product or service to the conXXXer.
Mass Production –
The proXXXtion of an artefact in very large numbers.





Primary Research – Research done by an indXXXXual from original sources.
Production Planning
– The process of detailing the steps that need to be carried
out before a product is manXXXXXXred that takes account of both time constraints
and available reXXXrces.

Prototype – The initial version of a product used for testing, develXXXXnt and



Quality Assurance – Preparatory work and techXXXXes carried out during the
design process to ensure the process will perform to specification.
Quality Control – Operational checks and tests carried out to ensure that the
product performs to speXXXXXXtion.
Questionnaire – A series of questions aimed at obtaining information on a specific
situation.  The anaXXXis of the results is a key feature of this activity, time needs to
be spent creating the actual queXXXons.



Render - To add colour, shaXXXg, textures, shadows, wood-graining, plastic effects
etc. to a drawing or sketch.
Research – The gathering of relevant inforXXXion.


Resources – The equipment, materials, knXXXXdge and skills required to design
and make a product.



Secondary Research – Research drawn from existing sources such as books and
Smart Materials  - These are modern materials that respond to difXXXXXces in
temperature or light and then change in some way.  Some also have a memory and
they revert back to their orXXXnal state – e.g. colour changing dyes.

Solution – The means by which the need is satXXfied.
Specification – (1) The criteria that a solution must achieve.  (2) Specification also
means the complete description of the subject content, assessment arraXXXXents
and performance requiXXXXnts for a qualification.  This now replaces the word


Symbol – A design idea that can be abstract or realistically repXXXXnt a solution.
System – A group of processes organised to peXXXrm a task.

Surface Development(Net) – Unfolding a paXXXXe or box creates a Surface
Development of the product.



Tolerance – The range/alloXXXce permitted when manufacturing a product.
Typography -
The construction / layout of neat letXXXXng / typestyles.

Template – A pattern or gauge used as a guide for marking/cutXXXg out single or
batches of a selected design idea.
Tessellation –
Nets/DevelXXXXnts arranged in a pattern or system.  2D shapes
that can be fitted together, with little space or waste – this technique is often used
when arranging developments for printing.


15:U & V


Unit Cost – The cost of proXXXXng a single item, found by dividing the total cost by
the number of units produced.
User Trip – The recording of a user’s impressions based upon the function of a
product – This is an example of a ‘First Hand ReXXXXXh Technique’.
Varnishing – This is the application of a thin glossy varnish that is applied to a
printed product.  It has a number of functions – it can help to protect the printed
product, it makes it more attXXXXXXe and can also be used to create dramatic
highlights.  There are various types of varnish used for different applXXXXions.
Vacuum Forming – The process of shaping theXXXXlastics onto a former by the
application of heat and a vacuum.


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